ARCL1006 Fundamentals of Archaeology I (1st Quarter 9 points) Prof. Amanda Esterhuysen
This course takes an in-depth look at the nature of the archaeological record. Broadly it covers the way in which sites are found and recorded, the different dating methods available to archaeologists, the preservation of organic and inorganic material, classification techniques and interpretation. It also serves to introduce the basic skills employed in the field and laboratory. Students obtain practical skills in surveying, excavating and curation, and are challenged to reflect on professional practice and ethics.
ARCL1007 Guide to Human Evolution I (3rd Quarter 9 points) Dr Jerome Reynard
This course explores the development of human cultural behaviour within the framework of the major stages of human evolution. The first part of the course considers non-human primates and the analogies they provide for the origins of cultural behaviour in our earliest ancestors. It then considers cultural adaptations, from the time of the development of lithic technology from 3.3 million years ago until the evolution of modern humans 200 000 years ago. The most important and lasting adaptations are discussed, and a major theme is how modern humans mingled with other groups outside of Africa to give rise to the humans of today.
ARCL1008 World Hunter-Gatherers I (2nd Quarter 9 points) Dr Sam Challis and Prof. David Pearce
For most of our history, humans have been hunter-gatherers. Even today there are small pockets of people who prefer to practice hunting and gathering as way of life, though often differently from how people might have in the past. This course will take students from the origins of complex hunting and gathering all the way to the present where we ask what the future is for those communities who follow this way of existence today. In the process, we look at examples of hunter-gatherers from all over the world and we consider hunter-gatherer economics, social organisation, religion and ritual, art and complexity. Finally, we assess whether modern-day hunter-gatherers provide valid analogues (comparisons) for understanding those in the archaeological record.
ARCL1009 Origins of Civilisation I (4th Quarter 9 points) Prof. Karim Sadr
Our urban way of life today is a consequence of a chain of events that was set into motion with the domestication of some plants and animals more than 10 000 years ago. In this course we consider the question of the rise of civilization, or better said the rise of complex societies. We look at how complex society is defined and recognized archaeologically, and where and why it arose. We will examine the key traits of some famous ancient complex societies (Babylon, ancient Egypt, the Maya, Great Zimbabwe…) and consider what the future of our civilization might be.
ARCL2002 Archaeology II (Full year course 48 points)
This course comprises four modules and a weeklong field school. Three modules are compulsory. These are ARCL2007 - Space and Time in Archaeology, ARCL2005 -Archaeology of the Last 2000 years and ARCL2004 Earlier and Middle Stone Age. A choice between two electives is offered in the third quarter. These are: ARCL2009 - World Rock Art, ARCL2006 – Osteoarchaeology.
The Archaeology second year field school takes place during the September University vacation. This field trip is compulsory and an entrance requirement for admission to the honours course. The field school will focus on Bokoni rock art recording and heritage site management. We will be joined on site by the curator of the Mashishing museum as well as community members. The site we will work on is a large engraved site in Thaba Chewu, Mpumalanga.
ARCL2007 Space and Time in Archaeology II (4th Quarter compulsory 12 points) Dr Dominic Stratford
Spatial and temporal resolutions are two fundamental aspects of the archaeological record that effect the way archaeologists excavate and analyse any archaeological data. This course aims to provide the students with the skills to recognise different archaeological contexts and plan multidisciplinary research protocols to take advantage of a broad range of evidence. This course has four main goals:
- It teaches students how the archaeological record is modified in space through time in different archaeological contexts.
- It introduces students to basic archaeological excavation methods and their applicability in different archaeological contexts.
- It introduces students to the broad spectrum of archaeological evidence and how they are modified in space and through time by a number of different biological, geological and anthropological processes.
- It teaches students the basic professional archaeological excavation planning and application processes in preparation for third year field schools.
ARCL2005 Archaeology of the Last 2000 years (2nd Quarter compulsory 12 points) Prof. Alex Schoeman
In this course we explore the making of South Africa society in the Last 2000 years in Southern Africa, focusing on various role players as well as interaction. The actors we focus on are hunter-gatherers, pastoralism, farming communities and slaves. Each week will focus on a specific aspect of the Last 2000 year sequence, as well as the sources and data used by the archaeologists who wrote the texts we use.
ARCL2009 World Rock Art II (3rd Quarter elective 12 points) Dr Catherine Namono
This course examines rock art - cave paintings and open air engravings - from around the world. It considers the times and the spaces in which they were executed and, importantly, the possible reasons as to why images were made at all. The ways in which scholars of different regions have tackled these questions engender lively debate regarding intercontinental similarities and differences.
The course takes the form of a series of lectures and long-duration tutorials. Because rock art is a highly contested field worldwide and with a large amount of visual content, it will be essential for students to familiarize themselves with the literature and debate surrounding its interpretation.
Assessment follows on from debate and discussion in the tutorial setting. Specific readings are given each week, for which the learners come prepared to the tutorial with a quote, a question for clarification and a question for discussion. Discussion flows from the latter and, as a group, all the discussion questions are tackled. With the benefit of class discussion the learners write a brief summary of the readings. These summaries are assessed each week. There is a brief visual test based on the lecture slides and a final exam.
ARCL2006 Osteoarchaeology (3rd Quarter elective 12 points) Dr Jerome Reynard
Osteoarchaeology is the analysis of human and animal bones and teeth from archaeological sites. Bone, teeth and horn are common at archaeological sites and it is crucial that professional archaeologists are able to identify bone and distinguish human from other animal remains. This course has five main goals:
It teaches students how to identify human and animal bones and teeth recovered from archaeological sites. In particular, it focuses on differentiating animal from human skeletal material.
- It shows how taphonomic processes play a role in determining what skeletal elements preserve and how bones are altered before and after death or deposition.
- It introduced students to subsistence behaviour or the types of strategies people used to obtain meat in the past.
- It teaches students how the human body and populations have been affected by behaviour, disease and health through time, and
- It introduces the legal and ethical issues encountered when working with human remains.
ARCL2004 Earlier and Middle Stone Age II (1st Quarter compulsory 12 points) Prof. Sarah Wurz
This course covers the evolution of African hominins from 3.3 million until about 40 000 years ago. In this course you learn about your roots as we analyse and trace our ancestors’ behaviour and technology. Our ancestors successfully negotiated many climatic and environmental changes and in the process transformed in to a number of different species, from Australopithecines to Homo sapiens. Stone tool technology was fundamental in helping them enter a new niche and compete successfully with other top predators, and therefore the development of this type of technology is one of the cornerstones of this course. You will develop some insights into why we are such intensely social beings, and why we love fire, song, dance and art.
The following topics are addressed:
- The beginnings of culture
- Becoming human: from Australopithecines to Homo
- Homo erectus/ergaster: biology, material culture and behaviour
- Homo sapiens: a species with deep roots
- Homo sapiens culture
ARCL3002 Archaeology III (72 points)
This course comprises four modules. Three are compulsory, these are ARCL 3004- The History of Archaeological Thought and ARCL 3003 - Archaeological data analysis and report writing and ARCL3006 - Southern African Rock Art. Students may choose between ARCL 3008 – Archaeology of Death and ARCL3009 – Lithics in the second quarter.
There is a compulsory, week long field trip to Late Iron Age stone walled ruins in the area between Johannesburg and the River Vaal. The specific objectives vary from year to year, but they involve close examination and recording of the architectural details of the stone walled structures and their associated objects and features. The skills taught in this course are useful for archaeological heritage impact assessment (AIA) phase 1 surveys.
ARCL3004 History of Archaeological Thought III (1st Quarter compulsory 18 points) Prof. Alex Schoeman
This course is designed to equip undergraduates with a broad framework for understanding the issues that have affected and still affect the way that we understand the past. The course is run as a series of lectures and long-duration tutorials. There is substantial reading required for the tutorials and each tutorial topic is an issue for consideration in their course essay. The students are guided through the process of writing their essay during the tutorials. The course covers ancient antecedents to archaeology, found in Egypt and the classical world, before moving on to the Mediaeval and Renaissance Periods; this sets the foundation for understanding modern forms of archaeological thinking from the second half of the 19th Century through to the present, which comprises the bulk of the subject matter for this course.
ARCL3008 Archaeology of Death III (2nd Quarter elective 18 points) Prof. Amanda Esterhuysen
Corpses, death and dying are culturally constructed entities that form part of a network of knowledge and memory. Rituals associated with death serve to make sense of the transition between life and death; but also to re-establish, justify and normalise social relationships amongst the living. Thus, whilst amongst archaeologists, human bodies instinctively prompt questions about cause of death, age and sex, there is much to be gained from shifting the focus of the study from the human remains, to the corpse, the grave or the memorial to obtain insight to the socio-psychological fabric of society. This course takes an in-depth look at:
- Different theoretical and practical approaches to mortuary studies.
- Evidence for the earliest forms of ritual body disposal, and
- Current thinking about the evolution of beliefs about death.
- The growth of the world’s religions, and systems of governance and death.
- The symbolic role of mortuary architecture, and monuments and how they function(ed) in the socio-economic landscape of the past and present.
- The cross-cultural treatment of the body, and what this tells us about attitudes towards and beliefs about bodies in this and the afterlife.
ARCL3009 Lithics (2nd Quarter elective 18 credits) Prof. Karim Sadr
In this course, we examine the classification of flaked stone tools. The course will look in-depth at:
- the morphological method of classification;
- the technological method of classification.
ARCL3006 Southern African Rock Art III (3rd Quarter elective 18 points) Dr Sam Challis
The course takes the form of a series of lectures and long-duration tutorials. Because southern African rock art is a highly contested field and with a large amount of visual content, it will be essential for students to familiarize themselves with the literature and debate surrounding its interpretation. Although we focus on San rock art, we also take into consideration the other rock art traditions of the subcontinent, those made by other groups: Khoe-speaking herders, Bantu-speaking farmers and groups from mixed backgrounds. Studying the rock art of these groups helps us to understand, among other things, their beliefs and the nature of interaction between cultures.
ARCL3003 Archaeological data analysis and report writing III (4th Quarter compulsory 18 points) Dr Thembi Russell
This course introduces students to the legislation and ethics that governs archaeological practice in South Africa, and also to cultural resource management. In this hands-on course, students learn a range of skills (applied GIS, ArcGIS, report writing, budget writing, desktop studies) that will equip them to become professional archaeologists upon Honours graduation.