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Routine Tests

The Tables below lists the immunological and allergy tests performed in the department.

Routine Diagnostic Assays Undertaken in the Department.

Test Comments

Alpha-feto protein (AFP)

Pre-natal diagnosis.
Amniotic fluid specimens are forwarded via the Human Genetics Department.
Tests are batched weekly

Autoantibody tests
Antinuclear factor (ANF/ANA)
Anticardiolipin antibodies (ACLA)
Rheumatoid Factor (RF)
Thyroid Antibodies
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)
Antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibodies

Autoimmune profile for various diseases, eg. SLE, thyroid antibodies, etc.
Nephelometry offers the definite advantage of time saving and accuracy as RF titres are calculated by the instrument.
All positive ANCAs are evaluated for the presence of PR3-ANCA antibodies.
The anti-GBM antibody test is a screening method to detect Goodpasture?s syndrome.
Since the disease has a rapid progression, it is essential to start proper treatment as soon as possible.
5ml clotted blood for each test.
Results are available the next day.

Complement tests
C1q, C3, C4, C6 & Factor B
Functional complement activity
Alternate / Classical Pathway

Complement levels and functions for humoral defects in immune function.
5ml clotted blood for each test.
Tests are performed daily

C1 esterase inhibitor

To identify angioneurotic oedema.
5ml clotted blood.
Tests are performed daily.

Mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC)
Lymphocyte Proliferation

Assessment of immunological rejection due to mis-matching for transplantation, especially bone marrow.
Test performed by special arrangement.
Results are available after one week.

Neutrophil functions
NBT (nitro-blue tetrazolium) test
Neutrophil Chemotaxis
Neutrophil Killing
Neutrophil Phagocytosis

To assess various aspects of neutrophil competence in host defences.
Tests performed by special arrangement.
Specimens must reach the laboratory within hours (send on ice).
Results available within 24 hours.

HLA/Tissue Typing
(HLA B27 and DR typing)

Appropriate leukocyte identification for transplantation & disease association.
30ml heparinised blood.
Results available within 24 hours.

Paternity Tests

Establishing/excluding paternity.
Appointments have to be made with Sr Smith (OPD, ext. 9471).
Tests are performed daily.

Allergy tests
Total IgE
RAST (see Table 2 for specific allergens)

Determination of IgE levels in serum.
Identification of allergy and IgE levels to appropriate allergens.
5ml clotted blood per test.
Specimens are batched 2-3 times per week.
Results are available the day after the test.

IgG Subclasses

Establishing IgG subclass deficiencies associated with bacterial and viral infections.
5ml clotted blood per test.
Specimens are batched.
Results are available the day after the test.

Secretory IgA (sIgA)

The detection of sIgA levels are valid up-to-date diagnostic tools in hepatobiliary tract disease, including acute and chronic liver disease and obstructive jaundice and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
5ml of clotted blood (red capped tube) or saliva specimens in appropriate containers.
Results are available the day after the test.

Preformed Antibodies

Identifying specific antibodies to specific HLA antigens.
10ml clotted blood.
Specimens are batched but emergency tests may be performed.


Identification of antigens/antibodies in tuberculosis screening.
5ml clotted blood, CSF or pleural fluid.
Specimens are batched every 2 days.

Allergens for Which RASTs Can Be Performed to Detemine Allergy.

Tree Pollens
* Birch (v1) * Cedar * Chestnut * Date
* Douglas fir * Elder * Horn beam * Horse Chestnut
* Peppertree * Pine * Spruce * Sweet gum
* Mixed * Birch (v2)
Weed Pollens
* Camomile * Lycopodium * Lupin * Rape
* Sugar beet * Sunflower * Mix
Moulds & Yeasts
* Cephalosporium acremonium * Chaetomium globosum * Penicillium frequentans
* Trichophyton ment. var goetzii * Trichophyton rubrum * Ulocladium chartarum
* Trichophyton ment. var interdigitale * Trichosporon pullulans * Ustilago nuda/tritici
Grass Pollens
* False oat * Salt * Mix
* Timothy (p1) * Timothy (p2)
Mite * Blomia tropicalis
Occupational Allergens
* Abachi wood dust * Alkalase * Bromelin
* Hexahydrophtalic anhydrid * Lysosyme * Papain
* Maleic anhydrid * Phospholipase * Savinase
Epidermals & Animal Proteins
* BSA * Cat serum albumin * Chicken droppings
* Chicken, serum proteins * Chinchilla epithelium * Deer epithelium
* Dog serum albumin * Ferret epithelium * Finch feathers
* Fox epithelium * Gerbil epithelium * Horse, serum proteins
* Mink epithelium * Pigeon feathers * Rabbit, serum proteins
* Rabbit, urine proteins * Reindeer epithelium * Swine serum albumin
* Swine, urine proteins
* Grain weevil * Horse fly * Mediterranean flour moth
* ACTH * Amoxycillin * Ampicillin
* Protamine * Tetanus toxoid * Numerous others

Other Allergens

* Artemisia salina, fish feed * Daphnia, fish feed * Tobacco leaf
* Tetramin, fish feed
Food - Plant Origin
* Anise * Asparagus * Aubergine/eggplant
* Basil * Bay leaf * Beetroot
* Blackberry * Blueberry * Blue vetch
* Brussel sprouts * Carambola * Caraway
* Cardamom * Carob * Cauliflower
* Chick peas * Chili pepper * Cinnamon
* Clove * Coffee * Coriander
* Curry (Santa Maria) * Date * Dill
* Fennel seed * Fennel, fresh * Fenugreek
* Fig * Ginger * Green bean
* Green pepper (unripe seed) * Guar, Guar gum * Guava
* Gum Arabic * Lovage * Jack fruit
* Lime * Marjoram * Mace
* Mandarin (tangerine, Clementine, satsumas) * HoneyHop (fruit cone) * Nutmeg
* Mushroom (champignon) Papaya Passion fruit
* Persimmon (khaki fruit, Sharon) * Pin nut, pignoles * Poppy seed
* Pumpkin seed * Rape seed * Red current
* Red kidney bean * Sugar beet seed * Tarragon
* Tea * Thyme * Tragacanth
* Vanilla * Watermelon
Food - Other
* Anchovy * Crayfish * Conalbumin
* Eel * Elk/moose meat * Goat milk
* Hake * Halibut * Horse meat
* Langust (spiny lobster) * Mackerel * Mare?s milk
* Megrim * Milk powder (AlfareĀ®, NestleĀ®) * Sardine (Pilchard)
* Sheep milk * Sheep whey * Snail
* Squid * Swordfish * Whey
Food - Mixes
* Almond, Kiwi fruit, melon, banana, grape * Apple, banana, pear, peach * Carrot, potato, spinach, cucumber
* Hazel nut, Brazil nut, orange, apple, cacao * Hazel nut, shrimp, Kiwi fruit, banana * Kiwi fruit, melon, banana, peach, pineapple
* Maize, pea, white bean, carrot, broccoli * Nuts: pecan, cashew, pistachio, walnut * Orange, apple, banana, peach
* Pea, peanut, soya bean * Pea, white bean, carrot, potato * Pork, beef, chicken & turkey meat
* Pork, beef, egg yolk, chicken & turkey meat * Rye, rice, potato, mushroom, pumpkin * Sesame seed, yeast, garlic, celery
* Strawberry, avocado, lemon, pineapple * Tomato, spinach, cabbage, paprika * Tomato, yeast, garlic, onion, celery
* Wheat, rye, barley, rice
Numerous other allergens are available upon request.