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Bioinformatics Tools


We have developed a number of bioinformatics tools, which are described in various papers and are available to use online, free of charge, at the following address:

The tools were developed using sequence data from hepatitis B virus, but may be used on DNA and/or amino acid data from any organism, as long as the input file is in the correct format.

We encourage researchers to make use of these tools. Please remember to cite the relevant paper if you have made use of the tools. Questions, comments and feedback can be directed to Professor Anna Kramvis at