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One of the world’s rarest chameleons found clinging to survival

- Wits University

Chapman’s pygmy chameleon, long feared to be extinct in the wild has been found surviving in patches of rainforest in Malawi.

Clinging to survival: Critically Endangered Chapman’s pygmy chameleon (Rhampholeon chapmanorum) persists in shrinking forest patches.

The study is published today in Oryx, the International Journal of Conservation.

Chapman’s pygmy chameleon (Rhampholeon chapmanorum) is a tiny, rare chameleon found in the rainforests of south Malawi. Adults of the species grow to only six centimetres in length, and unlike most chameleons that live above the ground, these diminutive reptiles live on the forest floor where they blend in with dried leaves. The species was only described by scientists in 1992, but severe destruction of the forest habitat for agricultural growth of maize and cassava has left the survival of the species on uncertain terms. 

In 2014, a conservation assessment by Wits University honorary researcher Professor Krystal Tolley led to the listing of Chapman’s pygmy chameleon as Critically Endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species, making it one of the world’s rarest chameleon species.

Comparing current-day satellite images of the species’ known habitat with those taken in the 1980s, revealed dramatic forest loss. What remained had become fragmented – small patches of forest, cut off from each other. They estimate that the forest – and with it, chameleon numbers – has shrunk by 80% since the 1980s.

Faced with fears that species may have been relegated to the chasm of extinction, Tolley led a team to find out if the chameleons still survive in the wild. The team, comprising of researchers from the South African National Biodiversity Institute and the Museums of Malawi, turned to crowdfunding website, RocketHub, to raise money for the project. Concerned citizens responded to the appeal, donating over R80 000 to the campaign, which was sufficient to fund surveys of three forest patches in which the species was thought to most likely still occur.

To their surprise, Tolley and her team found the pygmy chameleons at all of three of the surveyed locations. “We found the first chameleon in the transition zone on the forest edge, where there are some trees but mostly maize and cassava plants,” said Tolley. “When we found it, we had goosebumps and just started jumping around. While we were excited to find these chameleons still clinging to survival, we have no idea how much longer these populations will persist in these tiny patches of forest.”

To investigate the genetic health of these populations, Tolley collected tissue samples from chameleons in each forest patch. Genetic analyses suggested that these populations are unable to move between forest patches in order to breed because of the highly fragmented habitat. Without a healthy level of gene flow between populations, genetic diversity will be lost over time, posing another serious threat to the species’ survival. 

“The loss of forest habitat requires urgent conservation action, including halting of forest destruction and recovery of habitat to promote connectivity between forest patches,” says Tolley. “ Without action, the species may reach a point from which it cannot return.”

As a measure to protect the species’ remaining habitat, the researchers suggest that the forest patches in which the chameleons live be incorporated into the nearby Matandwe Forest Reserve so that it can be proclaimed as a Key Biodiversity Area, along with introducing strong measures to ensure its protection. They also recommend regular and thorough surveys of the chameleon populations to monitor their numbers and genetic health.

They are little, gentle creatures,” says Tolley. “I feel sad when I think about what’s happening to them – what we are doing to their habitat. They are really just helpless victims.”